o Politics – Kennedy campaigns in front of Dubrow’s.MajorWagner wins third term and orders a crackdown on “Girlie” magazines.
o Population – Brooklyn’s population is 2,627,319, down 134,174 from 1950 as the middle class starts migrating to the suburbs.
o Air Disasters – A United Airlines DC–8 collides in midair with a TWA Lockheed Constellation over Staten Island. One plane crashed into Staten Island, the other into Park Slope. All 128 passengers and crewmembers on the airliners are killed, along with six people on the ground.
o Great Fire – Fire sweeps through the USS Constellation while under construction at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Fifty workers are killed and 150 are injured.
o Civil Rights – The Brooklyn chapter of CORE is the most active Northern chapter.
o Transportation – The last Brooklyn trolleys are replaced by buses. The Downtown Heliport opens.
o Protests – American Nazi party leader George Lincoln Rockwell is mobbed outside the State Supreme court building after he tells reporters that if he came to power he’d execute all traitors and that 80% of Jews were traitors.
o Preserving culture – The city buys Carnegie Hall to save it from demolition.
o Amusement Parks – Freedomland opens in the Bronx.
o Ebbets Field – A white wrecking ball, with red stitching begins the demolition of Ebbets Field.
o Radio –WABC AM switches to Top 40 format with Cousin Brucie leading the charge.
o Extreme Weather – Hurricane Donna hits the city with 90 MPH winds on September 12th.
o Madison HS Football – Madison defeats Tilden, 34–22 in rare win. Mike Glickman and Nick Spinelli score in the final two minutes.
· Politics and Social Movements
o Presidential Election – Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy carry out the first televised Presidential debates. Kennedy narrowly defeats Nixon, to become the youngest man elected to this position and the first Catholic.
o The U.N. – Khrushchev pounds his shoe in protest against a speech critical of Soviet policy in Eastern Europe.
o The Cold War – Downed American U–2 pilot Capt. Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for espionage. Castro nationalizes all American property in Cuba. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes $1.0 million for the relief and resettlement of Cuban refugees, who had been arriving in Florida at 1,000 per week.
o Civil Rights – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1960. Congress approves a watered–down voting rights act after a filibuster by Southern senators. The Supreme Court rules that segregation in public transportation is illegal and that Louisiana's laws on racial segregation laws are unconstitutional. Coretta Scott King is jailed for a traffic violation; Robert Kennedy secures her release. Sit–ins force a Greensboro, North Carolina Woolworth's lunch counter to integrate. The Students for a Democratic Society, Young Americans for Freedom and the Student Non–Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) are founded. The SNCC later grows into a more radical organization, under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael.
o Public Health – Congress passes the Clean Water Act. Red dye #2 receives provisional acceptance from the FDA, despite evidence that it produces birth defects in animals. FDA reviewer Frances Kelsey, despite pressure from the manufacturer, keeps thalidomide off the US market, citing safety concerns. The National Lung Association launches an antismoking campaign with the message, “Kick the Habit.” Librium receives FDA approval for treating anxiety. The Care of the Dying by English nurse Cicely Saunders leads to the founding of the modern hospice movement. Studies show a link between cigarette smoking and heart disease. Life expectancy in the US is 69.7 years, one-and-a-half years longer than in 1950.
o Crime – Convicted kidnapper–rapist Caryl Chessman dies in the gas chamber at San Quentin.
o The Americas – Brazil's capital moves to Brasília.
o Africa – A slew of independent countries are formed; Niger, Congo, Senegal, Cameroon, Benin, Ghana, Mali, Kwame Nkrumah, the Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, , Gabon, Nigeria, Zambia and Mauritania. In South Africa, the police kill 72 in the Sharpeville Massacre and South Africa outlaws the ANC.
o Middle East – In Buenos Aires, four Mossad agents abduct the fugitive Nazi criminal Adolf Eichmann and put him on trial in Israel. TheAswan High Dam construction, financed by the USSR, begins in Egypt. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela form OPEC.
o Far East – South Vietnam's president Ngo Dinh Diem regains power following a coup by a paratroop brigade. He assumes dictatorial powers to combat the Vietcong. The buildup begins; 900 U.S. military advisers are sent to Vietnam.
o Europe – France tests its first atomic bomb in the Sahara desert to join the US, UK and USSR as a Nuclear Power. The Bank of France issues the new franc, worth 100 times the value of the old franc. The Anne Frank House opens in Amsterdam. The Canton of Geneva in Switzerland finally gives women the right to vote.
o Religion – For the first time in history, the Archbishop of Canterbury visits with a Pope in Vatican City. US church membership reaches 63% (114.5 million).
o Military –Newspapers report influence peddling by senior Pentagon officials. A Polaris missile is test–launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The USS Enterprise, the 1st nuclear–powered aircraft carrier, is launched.
o Census – The US population reaches 180,671,158. Nearly 70 percent of the residents live in urban area. The world population reaches 3 billion.
o Female Equality – Ceylon elects Sirimavo Bandaranaike as its Prime Minister, the world's first elected female head of government.
o Psychedelics – Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert begin experimenting with psychedelic drugs at Harvard University.
· The Economy
o Gross National Product – $529.9 billion (a 2.2% increase over 1959);Federal spending – $92.19 billion;Federal debt – $290.5 billion, an increase of $3 billion over 1959.
o Wages and prices – Average income – $5,600 (up 11%);Minimum wage – remained at $1/hour; gas 31¢, up a nickel; a new car; – $2,600; Volkswagen Beetle – $1,769, Ford Mustang 2 door hardtop – $2, 368; Oxford men's shoes – $12.95; dozen eggs – 57¢; gallon of milk – 49¢, ton of coal $14.95. Inflation is a tame 1.4%.
o Unemployment – Identical to 1959 – @5.5%.Ten percent of the U.S. workforce is on the farm, down from 18 percent in 1940 and 11.6 percent in 1950.
o The Stock Market – The Dow Jones ends the year at 618.04, down 2% for the year.
o Autos – The Datsun is introduced in the U.S. Chrysler halts production of the DeSoto. The U.S. has 2.17 million miles of surfaced road by year's end, up from 1.68 million in 1950, and 951,100 miles of dirt road, down from 1.31 million.
o Imports – The balance of trade is a positive 3.5 billion.
o Surplus Grain – Grain worth $6 billion piles up in U.S. government–owned storage facilities, while congressmen file vigorous complaints about storage costs.
· Arts and Entertainment
o Music – Billboard Top 10: 1. You Talk Too Much; 2. Cathy's Clown; 3. The Twist; 4. Save The Last Dance For Me; 5. Running Bear; 6. Sweet Nothin's; 7. Handy Man; 8. Walk, Don't Run; 9. Alley–Oop; 10. Stay.
o Other music hits – Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polkadot Bikini and Ray Charles' Georgia On My Mind are other popular hits. Johnny Cash plays the first of many free concerts behind bars.
o Dance – The Twist is the biggest dance–craze. The word “reggae” is coined in Jamaica to identify a “ragged” style of dance music, with its roots in New Orleans rhythm and blues.
o Oscars –Best Picture – The Apartment; Best Director – Billy Wilder, for The Apartment; Best Actor – Burt Lancaster in Elmer Gantry; Best Actress – Elizabeth Taylor in Butterfield 8.
o Premieres – New openings include: Toys in the Attic by Lillian Hellman; The Best Man by Gore Vidal; A Man for All Seasons by English playwright Robert Bolt; Period of Adjustment by Tennessee Williams; Advise and Consent adapted by Loring Mandel All the Way Home by Tad Mosel and The Fantasticks, which would run for 43 years, the world's longest–running musical.
o New performers – The Liverpool rock group the Quarrymen become the Beatles and begin a 48–night residency at the “Indra Club” in Hamburg. Tennessee choir singer Tina Turner (Annie Mae Bullock) records A Fool in Love and has her first big rhythm–and–blues success; West Virginia–born country music singer Loretta Lynn records Honky Tonk Girl. Jimi Hendrix, rock and roll guitarist, plays his first gig.
o New Books – To Kill a Mockingbird – Harper Lee; Run, Rabbit, Run – John Updike; Growing Up Absurd – Paul Goodman; A Canticle for Leibowitz – Walter M. Miller Jr.; The Magician of Lublin – Isaac Bashevis Singer; Green Eggs and Ham and One Fish Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish – Dr. Seuss.
o Best Sellers –Advise and Consent – Allen Drury; Hawaii – James Michener; The Leopard – Giuseppe Di Lampedusa
o Prizes for Literature – The Pulitzer Prize for fiction awarded to Advise and Consent. Harper Lee wins a Pulitzer Prize for To Kill a Mockingbird. The Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to Delmore Schwartz.
o Fine arts – Notable works include: Ascending and Descending – M. C. Escher; Campbell's Soup – Andy Warhol; Triple Self–Portrait – Norman Rockwell.
o Poetry – Second Avenue – Frank O'Hara. This collection includes Easter and In Memory of My Feelings.
o Emmy Awards – Best Drama – Playhouse 90; Best Actor – Robert Stack in The Untouchables; Best Actress – Jane Wyatt in Father Knows Best.
o TV Debuts – My Three Sons and The Flintstones.
o Top TV Favorites – Gunsmoke, Wagon Train, Have Gun, Will Travel, The Andy Griffith Show, The Real McCoys, Rawhide, Candid Camera, The Untouchables, The Price is Right, The Jack Benny Show, Dennis the Menace, The Danny Thomas Show, My Three Sons, 77 Sunset Strip, The Ed Sullivan Show, Perry Mason, Bonanza, The Flintstones, The Red Skelton Show, and Alfred Hitchcock Presents.
o TV Finales – The Millionaire, The Steve Allen Show, The Pat Boone Show, The Goon Show, and during Howdy Doody's last show Clarabelle finally talks, saying “Goodbye Kids.”
o Grammy Awards – Song of the Year – Theme From Exodus; Record of the Year – Theme From A Summer Place by Percy Faith; Best Pop Female Vocal – Mack the Knife by Ella Fitzgerald; Best Pop Male Vocal – Georgia on My Mind by Ray Charles.
o Celebrity Couples – Marriages: Sammy Davis, Jr., and Swedish actress May Britt; Debbie Reynolds and Harry Karl; Bobby Darin and Sandra Dee; Deborah Kerr and Peter Viertel; and Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon. Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball file for divorce...
o Elvis – Sergeant Elvis Presley returns home from Germany, after being away for 2 years. He records Are You Lonesome Tonight?
o Peabody Award – Ventriloquist-puppeteer Shari Lewis, 26, wins a Peabody Award for entertaining children.
o Scandals – House Committee looks into “Payola.” American Bandstand DJ Dick Clark is involved and Alan Freedman is arrested for taking payola. Jack Paar walks off the NBC Tonight Show set in tears in protesting network censorship.
o Last goodbyes – Albert Camus, Nevil Shute, Boris Pasternak, Oscar Hammerstein II, Ward Bond, Mack Sennett, Emily Post.
o Baseball – The Pittsburgh Pirates defeat the Yankees 4–3 in the World Series. Most valuable players: Roger Maris, NY; Dick Groat, Pittsburg. Casey Stengel retires from the Yankees. The Giants move to Candlestick Park. Mickey Mantle becomes the 18th player to hit 300 HR’s.
o Football – Pete Rozell becomes NFL commissioner. The Philadelphia Eagles defeat the Green Bay Packers for the NFL championship. The Heisman Trophy is awarded to Joe Bellino. The Dallas Cowboys professional football team plays its first season.
o Basketball – The Celtics beat the Hawks 4–3 for the NBA championship. Wilt Chamberlain becomes the NBA’s Most Valuable Player.
o Bicycling – Gastone Nencini of Italy wins the Tour de France, averaging 23 MPH.
o Track and Field – The 64th Boston Marathon is won by Paavo Kotila, of Finland, in 2:20:54. Women aren’t allowed to compete until 1966.
o Golf – Arnold Palmerwins the US Open and the Masters. Kel Nagle wins the British Open.
o Tennis – The US Tennis Open is won by Australian Neale Fraser defeating fellow Australian Rod Laver. Maria Bueno wins the women's singles.
o Auto Racing – The Daytona 500 auto race is won by Junior Johnson in a '59 Chevrolet, averaging 124.740 MPH.
o Boxing – Floyd Patterson becomes the World Heavyweight Champion, defeating Ingemar Johansson who had won it from him the previous year. Cassius Clay wins Olympic gold in boxing.
o Olympic Summer Games – The Soviet Union wins first place with 103 awards; the US is second with 71. Wilma Rudolph, a former polio patient, wins three gold medals on the track. She is acclaimed as “the fastest woman in the world.” Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia wins the marathon bare-footed to become the first black African Olympic champion. American athlete Rafer Johnson defeats his rival and friend C.K. Yang in the decathlon. The games were telecast for the first time.
o Olympic Winter Games – The Soviet Union wins the Squaw Valley Games with 21 awards. Germany is second with 8 and the US third. Foreshadowing the 1980 Miracle on Ice, the little-regarded United States men's ice-hockey team beats Canada. For the first time at a winter games, an Olympic Village was built to house all the athletes.
o Horse Racing – Bill Hartack aboard Venetian Way wins the Kentucky Derby. The Preakness is won by Robert Ussery aboard Bally Ache.
· Technology and Medicine
o US Launches – AT&T Labs launches Echo, the world’s communications satellite and Tiros, the first weather satellite. In May, Midas 2, the first US spy satellite designed for detecting missile launches, relays to Earth information from infrared cameras. Discoverer 13 is launched and recovers the first object ever returned from space. A week later Discoverer 14 parachutes canisters of surveillance film back to Earth. Pioneer 5 is launched into solar orbit between Earth & Venus.
o Astronomy – Allan Rex Sandage discovers that a star-like object of 16th magnitude is emitting radio waves. This object, 3C 48, is later identified as a quasar. Quasars emit vast amounts of energy, but appear in telescopes as ordinary stars. The National Observatory at Kitt Peak, Arizona opens.
o Standards – The International Standard, called SI after its French name, Systèm International, replaces the metric system. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures defines the standard meter as a certain multiple of the wavelength of the light emitted when krypton gas is heated.
o Medicine –Dr. Michael Woodruff carries out the first successful kidney transplant in Edinburgh, Scotland. James Bonner discovers that chromosomes synthesize RNA.
o Birth Control – The FDA approves Searle's Enovid, making it the world's first approved oral contraceptive pill. It sells for 50 cents each.
o Anthropology –Jane Goodall observes tool–making by a chimpanzee. A chimp she named David Graybeard shapes a blade of grass to poke into a termite mound. He then eats the termites attached to the leaf. In October, Jonathan Leakey, son of Louis Leakey and Mary Leakey, finds the first recognized fossil remains of Homo habilis, or “Handy Man,” the earliest known human, dating from as early as 2 million BCE.
o USSR Space Launches – Sputnik 5, returns to Earth with the dogs Belka and Strelka. The Marsnik 1 becomes the first probe launched to Mars.
o Physics – The first CERN particle accelerator becomes operational in Geneva, Switzerland.
o Electronics – Dr. T.H. Maiman, of the Hughes Aircraft Co., reports the development of the first successful ruby laser.
o Computers – Digital Equipment Corporation introduces the PDP–1, a computer with a maximum memory of 26,000 bytes. It is the first commercial computer with a keyboard and monitor. Remington Rand, builder of the UNIVAC, completes the Livermore Advanced Research Computer, or LARC, with 60,000 transistors. It is the first large scientific computer to use transistors. IBM launches “Project 360”, developed by Gene Amdahl. Paul Baran of the Rand Corporation develops the principle of packet switching, a way of interchanging data between computers that uses discrete bundles of information for each interchange. American Airlines begins construction of SABRE, the first computerized airline reservation system. The Imperimerie National at Paris introduces typesetting by computer.
o Nobel Prizes – Sir Macfarlane Burnet of Australia and English biologist Peter Brian Medawar win the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their study of immune reactions to tissue transplants. Donald Arthur Glaser wins the prize in physics for the invention of the bubble chamber, allowing scientists to observe what happens to high-energy beams from an accelerator.
o Energy – Geothermal power is captured for the first time in the United States at The Geysers, near San Francisco.
o Exploration – The nuclear submarine USS Triton, completes the first underwater circumnavigation of the Earth. The nuclear submarine USS Seadragon surfaces at the North Pole, the first submarine ever to do so. Her crew emerges and plays softball.
· Product Introductions
o The implanted Heart Pacemaker
o The Hologram, using the power of a laser
o The modem invented in Bell Telephone Laboratories using the binary code patented by Jean–Emile Baudot in 1874
o The digital display for the pocket calculator and electronic watches.
o The halogen lamp
o The world's first electronic wristwatch, a Bulova Accutron
o Chatty Cathy, the first popular talking doll. It spoke 11 random phrases at the pull of a string. The original voice was June Foray, the voice of Rocket J. Squirrel in the Rocky & Bullwinkle cartoons.
o Teflon Non–sticking cookware goes on sale at Macy's in New York
o The first music synthesizer program, MUSIC, created by Max V. Mathews of Bell Labs
o The ATM
o Aluminum cans as a commercial container for food and beverages
o Domino's Pizza begins operations at Detroit.
o Coffee Rich non–dairy creamer introduced by dairyman Robert E. Rich
o The first Tower Records store in Sacramento, Calif.
o First Playboy Club opens in Chicago.
Attributions – http://en.wikipedia.org/, http://www.fiftiesweb.com/, http://www.historyorb.com/date/1960, http://www.thepeoplehistory.com, http://www.infoplease.com, http://www.librarything.com, http://www.1960sflashback.com, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by–sa/3.0/, http://blog.modernmechanix.com, http://www.whosdatedwho.com, New York, Year by Year by Jeffrey Kroessler, New York Chronology by James Trager